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Insecure Education



Experience is that computer hackers strive diligently, with patience not typical to any other
group, to understand, decompose, analyze, and defeat obstructions to their freedom.  The
next few pages' scope the learning process available to anyone.  There  is a plethora  of
documents and  interactive tutorials on the INTERNET and BBS for anyone to browse,
download, study and attempt.   One does not need to go to school to learn computer
programming, hardware manipulation or networked communications.  One only needs
access, a computer, and a modem.
To begin,  there  are programs that they released  in mid to  late 1988 geared to teaching
programming to children  ages 6-13. Two are well done introductory documents  for all
ages.  Once a novice has mastered these  basics, he moves onto BASIC  (Beginner's
All-Purpose  Symbolic Instruction  Code), a near English language a beginner usually
learns.  There are Public Domain programs described as BASIC for Beginners, BASIC
made simple, Almost Painless structured BASIC, College-level intro to BASIC
programming, and an Explanation of PEEKS and  POKES in BASIC, available to begin an
education.  Couple these programs with Apple's BASICA or DOS' GWBASIC user's guide
and you will have the beginnings of a decent BASIC-language programmer.  After  three
months practice you are ready  to  go on  to commercial packages such as TurboBasic ,
QuickBasic or Visual Basic. Pirated versions of commercial software are available on less
than honorable INTERNET and BBS nodes.  They allow you to continue the education
process should you desire to be a BASIC professional.

[The two programs for teaching programming to children are  42,321 and 129,073 bytes
long,  respectively, in .ZIP (compressed) format.  They released the larger of the two five
months after the smaller one.   The BASIC Tutorial programs are, in  order, 71,938,  9,290,
19,257, 260,677,  and  4,096  bytes long in .ZIP and .ARC  format.]
After a novice has mastered BASIC, there are several other programming languages to
learn.  You can find tutorials on "C," "C++," Pascal, Turbo Pascal, ADA, and VAX  VMS
and assembly language.  These tutorials are good-to-excellent introductory and
intermediate-level learning packages.   In a  short amount of time, a novice can become
proficient in creating program instructions using these languages.  Any individual can easily
copy examples of other people's programming code to help his education.  Unlike Latin
that lost its vocal characteristics over time these languages and their style samples are
forever. The American Government is an excellent source of free or at cost knowledge.
Service schools will often give single copies away of non-classified technical manuals.  The
GPO is a vast disorganized source. Our congressional representatives oblige us within
reason.  Democracy can sometimes be its own worse enemy.  The next logical step in
one's programming education is to  go  on to  the  operating system, in  this  example,
PC/MS-DOS.  Understand the operating system can as easily be OS/2, UNIX or any
available.  DOD uses 31 different operating systems.
[There are four "C" tutorials to choose from:
????????  .ZIP 244,735 bytes long in two .ZIP files
????????  .ZIP 191,605 bytes long in three .ZIP files
????????  .ARC 116,351 bytes long in one .ARC file
????????       .ZIP 119,680  bytes long in one .ZIP file
A PASCAL Tutorial 179,360 bytes long in two .ZIP files
A Turbo PASCAL Tutorial 201,811 bytes long in one .ZIP file
For ADA:
A Tutorial 259,072 bytes long in one .ARC file
For Assembly Language:
A  Tutorial 38,912  bytes long in one .ARC file]
There are dozens of DOS tutorials available.  There are also "specialty"  learning
programs for  specific aspects of DOS.  Programs such as "Learn all you have ever wanted
to know about DEBUG.COM","Full description and use of ANSI.SYS, an ANSI Tutorial","a
Discussion and examples of DOS  filters", and "Create device drivers."   There are also
references manuals to download.  The Complete Programmers  Reference  to  MS-DOS,
The  Complete  DOS  Technical Reference Manual, and a Programming Technical
Reference Manual are available for download and use.  These programs, and other similar
to  them, will have  our novice computer programmer flying  through PC/MS-DOS and
interfacing  his programming skills with  his  operating  system  to  get  full  use  of his
computer system.
[The programs mentioned above are,  respectively  (ZIP size): 15,692, 16,256, 13,773,
24,448, and 10,240.   The references are 198,751, 206,357, and 202,547.]
If our new computer programmer/user became bogged down by a problem, or has
questions,  there are Special Interest Groups and Chat conferences on all the
programming  languages, operating systems, and hardware.  In effect, a novice has
access to hundreds of willing "teachers" and experts.  This resource helps  him when  he
moves onto other programming languages that do not have tutorials.  These include
compilers for COBOL  (COmmon Business Oriented Language),  Modula 2,  LISP,  and
PROLOG.   All compilers come with documentation and most with examples.  Any
unanswered questions will be answered by his hundreds of willing "teachers."
[The compilers are:
    COBOL             57,896 in .ZIP format
    Modula2    286,720 in .ZIP format in 3 files
    LISP            155,012 in .ZIP format
    PROLOG          120,148 in .ZIP format
    ADA                    50,075 in .ARC format]

Compilers, translators, etc. exist for other programming languages as well.  Rather than
develop a book I have foregone detail explanations for FORTRAN, SNOBAL, PL/1, RPGII,
etc.  Additionally specific machine oriented languages such as NEAT/3 for NCR or the
TI990 or HP3000 are available and tutorials can be found.
At  this  point, our novice computer programmer realizes that there are many people who
know more than he does about  programming.    So, he downloads translation utilities to
decompile executable code and/or translate  executable code (.EXE or  .COM files)  into
BASIC  or ASSEMBLY languages to see how others put  together their programs.  This is
our novice computer programmer's  first, or probably  second, forays into STEALING.
I say "probably second . . . " because  he has probably downloaded shareware  programs
that he  continues to use without sending the requested payment to  the  author.   As  for
the  "stealing" aspect . . .  Our  NCP (Novice Computer Programmer)  will begin his ethical
slide into hacking by copying coded routines  and subroutines from other programs and
using them himself  without giving credit to the originator.  After he has gotten the hang of
this, he will usually begin to steal ideas because he feels he can do the programs,
subroutines, etc. better on his own using the programming language where he feels most
comfortable.  Stealing reduces work (code writing) since he can download (and improve
upon) code using language translators stolen from INTERNET or BBS.  Our NCP can
translate or decompile executable code into BASIC; from BASIC to FORTRAN, C,
PASCAL, or ASSEMBLER, from C to PASCAL and back.  He can move from PASCAL to
dBase III programming language and back, and from ASSEMBLER to ADA (see diagram
1)   He can then recompile modified programs and call them his own.   This is a  small step
away from PIRACY of commercial packages that our NCP cannot afford to purchase.
DIAGRAM 1:   Translation Map
                                  DB III
                                    I           COBOL  
                                    I             I                                                
                   PASCAL           I
                       I                                    I
                     "C"                    EXECUTABLE CODE   
                       I                                     I            
                       ---------- BASIC------------
                                    I                       I
                FORTRAN---------------------- I--------BINARY FILES
                                    I                       I  

               SIZE      Creation            Description
BASIC:    36,864         ?              Convert BASIC programs to C                
          35,584         1-1-85              Convert BASIC programs to FORTRAN
                 2,947        3-15-88             Convert .COM files to .BAS files
                 2,089        3-16-88             Convert binary files to BASIC
                 3,026        3-15-88             Translate QBASIC to TurboBASIC
               41,240         7-7-87              Convert COM/EXE files to BASIC
                 3,283        3-15-88             Reads binary and converts to ASCII       
          32,124         3-16-89             Convert BASIC to "C"
               33,006         11-12-88            Convert BASIC to QBASIC
               46,967         12-16-88            Convert PC/GWBASIC to structured BASIC
PASCAL:   78,928         9-26-88             Translate Turbo PASCAL to "C"
               38,979         5-26-87             Convert PASCAL to "C" v1.4
                 9,460        6-1-86              Read/write dbase files in Turbo PASCAL
               15,675         2-13-87             DbaseIII- create T/Pascal source from DBF
               24,692         2-7-88              Disassemble PASCAL source
               82,815         11-17-88            Turbo PASCAL to "C" Converter
               44,919         11-17-88            Turbo PASCAL to "C" Converter -test cases
C:             12,288         2-26-88        C to PASCAL source translator
                 9,216        2-1-87         C to PASCAL translator
                   117,373         1-4-89         68000 C compiler (Apple)
ASSEM       3,439        3-15-88        Link ASM programs to QBASIC
 BLER:        149,055         3-15-88        ASM subroutines from BASIC
               48,128         7-31-88        Convert MASM to A86
               22,528         3-21-88        Convert .COM & .EXE files to ASM
               26,624         4-1-88         Convert .COM & .EXE files to ASM
               26,368         9-12-87        Disassembler of .COM files
                 2,703        9-6-88         How to raise ADA exceptions from ASM
               65,522         5-1-87         80X8X Cross Assembler
OTHER:      6,832        4-4-88         Convert .TXT to .COM file
                 4,820        3-11-88        Convert HEX to binary and back
               29,141         9-7-88         Un-compile .COM programs

In his search for language translators/decompilers, our NCP will also find translators and
emulators  for  other machines and hardware architectures.  He will find emulators for
VT100, VT102, VT200 and the IBM 3270.  He will find programs to allow him to read CP/M
(a pre-DOS DOS), AppleDOS, and replace some of his MS/PC-DOS commands with UNIX
or  UNIX-like commands.  He  will also find  programs to write and  run assembly language
programs for the 8080  microprocessor and  Z80  assembler for  the IBM mainframes  (see
diagram  2).  All this new found knowledge and ability will pique his interest in
communications (if his affection for his  modem and on-line BBS's  already did not). 
Curiosity will fuel an increasing desire  to learn and know  more  about  all aspects of
computing.  This becomes an insatiable  appetite to have  and do "it all"  in  the computing
world.    He has become a hacker.
    Commercial Board      COMMODORE 64                        VT200               
     Products                                     I                             I
                                                              I                           I
       ATARI                  8086---8088---80286---80386---80486---80586
         I                          8085---          MS-DOS                       ---VM/370
         I                                      NEC20--NEC30--NEC40
     MACINTOSH                           I      I       I     I 
                                                      I      I       I     I
                                             8080    Z80      I     6502
                                                      (CP/M)    I     I
  COMMODORE AMIGA                              I     I
         I                                                     UNIX    I
         I                                              (GENERIC) I
    MS-DOS                                                    68000
    Size                 Creation                 Description
   1,004                 3-1-89              VT-100 Emulation (DEC)
      803                3-1-89              VT-100 Emulation (DEC)
   4,084                 3-1-89              VT-100 Emulation (DEC)
  10,496                 10-6-87             Reads IBM disks on Commodore 1571 drive
  11,264                 12-10-87            Read CP/M disks on a PC in DOS
179,840             10-24-86            Z80 emulator for the PC
  48,402            1-3-89              CP/M emulator to run under DOS
   2,048                 6-6-88              Fool DOS!  run CP/M under any version
106,932             12-9-88             VT-200 Terminal package (DEC)
    3,133                3-17-89             Convert IBM BASIC files to APPLE &  vice versa
122,368             1-11-89             Make IBM 370 ASM run on your PC
  25,600                 4-11-88             PC370 assembler compiler v4.2 disk CP 
115,712             4-11-88             PC370 assembler compiler v4.2 disk DE  
  84,992                 4-11-88             PC370 assembler compiler v4.2 disk LB 
156,672             4-11-88             PC370 assembler compiler v4.2 disk R4   
    6,175                2-13-88             Run 8080 programs on the NEC V20
   65,522                5-1-87              8080 Cross Assembler
 190,169            1-29-89             Converts CP/M to/from DOS diskettes v1.24
   95,121           1-5-89              UNIX-like CURSES for the PC
   16,896           12-18-88            UNIX CP recursive + options
 208,384            4-19-88             UNIX-like commands in DOS
 159,360            2-26-88             UNIX shell archives for MS-DOS
   50,688           12-24-88            UNIX front-end for DOS
   14,464           10-13-88            UNIX CP (copy) command recursive
   14,208           1-26-89             UNIX LS (directory) command recursive  
   11,776           10-13-88            UNIX RM (remove) command recursive
 226,816            1-3-89              Complete UNIX Utilities (part 1, A-C) 
 190,720            1-4-89              Complete UNIX Utilities (Part 2, D-F) 
 236,928            1-5-89              Complete UNIX Utilities (Part 3, G-R) 
 296,704            1-24-89             Complete UNIX Utilities (Part 4, S-V)
There are tutorials on comm-ports  and RS232, guides to build your own  RS232 adapters
and cables, and explanations of file transfer protocols.   There are other  text files on radar
detectors, how to build your own HBO converter, where  to aim your  satellite dish to
receive whatever,  even a tutorial on EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse).    Hence does  our
NCP begin his descent into Super Hackerdom.
   11,827           2-22-89             Tutorial on EMP
   12,602           3-3-89              Info on Radar detectors
   67,378           8-9-88              Tutorial on COMM-PORTS
   35,976           9-13-87             Explanation of 3 file transfer protocols  
   12,288           6-15-87             Build cables with this info
     2,048          2-9-89              Build your own HBO converter
     1,024          7-12-86             Build your own null modem
 106,496            3-3-88              RS232 Tutorial
     6,400          10-19-88            How to build RS232 adapters
    59,392          5-28-88             Easy-to-use flowcharts
  160,214           4-25-88             Several serial port tools; display & debug
      8,059         7-4-88              Satellite Aimer for MS-DOS
The  universe of knowledge available to those willing and wanting to  learn is impressive.
Another area to be considered is documentation that teaches telephone hacking, code
hacking, and password hacking.    The release of  Mr.  Morris'  passwords  has caused
their inclusion into automated telephone hacking software such as Thief,  AIO, Hacker
Deluxe,  and (I'm just a) Fuck'in Hacker.  Sobczak has studied the available systems that
simplify the training of hackers.  Had we the need, we could  mix and match to create a
modified monster combination telephone number/password/ID code hacking system.   A
sample of  the representation of code Hackers  gives you a perception of  how easy  it is
to follow  the instructions and learn by doing. We have now created a telephone phreaker.

In summary, knowledge is a precious resource to which the hacker has access.  Those
responsible for national security are at risk from thousands of free spirits who spread their
successes to tens of thousands of others. Jefferson was correct.  Knowledge is Power.